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Types of Curves

There are two types of curves provided primarily for the comfort and ease of the motorists in the road namely:
Horizontal Curve
Vertical Curve

Horizontal Curves: 

Horizontal curves are provided to change the direction or alignment of a road. Horizontal Curve are circular curves or circular arcs. The sharpness of a curve increases as the radius is decrease which makes it risky and dangerous. The main design criterion of a horizontal curve is the provision of an adequate safe stopping sight distance.

Types of Horizontal Curve:

Simple Curve: A simple arc provided in the road to impose a curve between the two straight lines.

Compound Curve: Combination of two simple curves combined together to curve in the same direction.

Reverse Curve: Combination of two simple curves combined together to curve in the same direction.

Transition or Spiral Curve:  A curve that has a varying radius. Its provided with a simple curve and between the simple curves in a compound curve. While turning a vehicle is exposed to two forces. The first force which attracts the vehicle towards the ground is gravity. The second is centripetal force, which is an external force required to keep the vehicle on a curved path. At any velocity, the centripetal force would be greater for a tighter turn (smaller radius) than a broader one (larger radius). Thus, the vehicle would have to make a very wide circle in order to negotiate a turn. This issue is encountered when providing horizontal curves by designing roads that are tilted at a slight angle thus providing ease and comfort to the driver while turning. This phenomenon is defined as super elevation, which is the amount of rise seen on a given cross-section of a turning road, it is otherwise known as slope.

Vertical Curves:

Vertical curves are provided to change the slope in the road and may or may not. be symmetrical. They are parabolic and not circular like horizontal curves. Identifying the proper grade and the safe passing sight distance is the main design criterion of the vertical curve, iln crest vertical curve the length should be enough to provide safe stopping sight distance and in sag vertical curve the length is important as it influences the factors such as headlight sight distance, rider comfort and drainage requirements.

Types of Vertical Curve:

Sag Curve : Sag Curves are those which change the alignment of the road from uphill to downhill,
Crest Curve/Summit Curve : Crest Curves are those which change the alignment of the road from downhill to uphill. In designing crest vertical curves it is important that the grades be not] too high which makes it difficult for the motorists to travel upon it.

Dr. Srinivasin

Some useful abbrivations and info

RFI = request for information
CRFI = contractor request for inspection
MIR = material inspection request
IFC = issue for construction
EI = engineer instruction
SD = shop drawing
ASBD = as built drawing
JSI = job site instruction
ITP = inspection test plan
PAC = provisional acceptance certificate
FAC = final acceptance certificate
ITL = Independent Testing Laboratory
CPI = cost performance index
LPO = local purchase order
ITP =  inspection test plan
TPI = Third party inspection
LOI = letter of intent
C.O = confirmation order
MAS = Material approval submittal
L/C = letter of credit
CDC = current date cheque
PDC = post dated cheque
IP = Inspection Plan
TSR = Test Sample Request
WR = Work Request
MIV = Material Issue Voucher
SMR = site material requisition
FIN = Field Inspection Notice
ITP = Inspection and Test Plans
P & ID = Piping and instrumentation diagram
NCR = non conformance report.
RFI = Request for information.
CL = Check list or IR = Inspection request.
MDN = material delivery note.
JSI = Job site instructions.
SR = Safety report.
Tr = Transmittal.
TCS = technical comparison sheet.
CCS = Cost comparison sheet
QA/QC = Quality Assurance Quality Control
QS = Quantity surveyor
BOQ = Bill Of Quantity
LOI = Letter Of Intent
PQP = Project quality plan
ITP = Inspection test plan
HSEP = Health safety and environment plan
JV = Join venture
PB = Performance bond
TB = Tender bond
CAR = Contractor all risk
RFMA = Request for material approval
RFQ = Request for quotation
RFV = Request for variation
VO = Variation order
SF = Submittal form
TQ = Technical query
DSR = Daily site report
MOM = Minutes of meeting
SWI = Site work instructions
PMI = Project manager instructions
RAS = Request for alternatives or substitution
MDC = Material deliveries checklist
RFI = Request for inspection
NCR = Non conformance report
SVN = Safety Violation notice

Dr. Srinivasin

Old Thermal Plants may Power up Scrap Business:

KOLKATA: India's ageing thermal power plants could mean good times for companies in the dismantling business.

About half of the country's thermal power plants—which collectively account for almost 30% of total installed capacity—are over 25 years old, and a large number of them are fast approaching 40, which is considered the end of their useful life span. Beyond this they will necessarily need to be scrapped, opening up a market for effective disposal of these plants.

"In fact, 188 thermal power plants out of a total 396 are more than 25 years old. They have a total installed capacity of about 56 GW, out of a total installed capacity of 188 GW. A large number of these plants would be scrapped," said Ashok Khurana, director general of the Association of Power Producers.

According to experts, generation capabilities of a thermal power plant reduce by about 40% after surpassing the operational age of 25 years. Requirement of coal also keeps increasing, thereby calling for de-rating of such plants.

"All these 25-year-old plants were built with technology that took care of pollution norms prevalent at that time. However, norms have turned stricter and these old plants need to spend more on adhering to norms. If they undertake renovation and modernization, tariffs also increase, as the additional costs need to be passed on," the executive said.

The need for shuttering old plants has opened up a large market for decommissioning and effective disposal, similar to the ship-breaking industry. Companies like mjunction and MSTC have stepped in to grab a chunk of this market.

"The service requires onsite inspection, inventorying, segregation and estimation. All of which culminate into an online sale to qualified and credible buyers which fetches the optimum price for the power plant," an executive of mjunction said.

Vinaya Varma, mjunction's CEO, said, "Our focus is on transparency and price discovery of such assets, which are not only economically unviable but also a hazard for the environment."

An executive from a power plant said, "Considering that we need working capital to expand our operations, it is imperative that we sell our defunct units and scrap at a competitive price in the shortest possible time."

Getting rid of the plant includes segregation of scrap, assets that can be refurbished, unused assets and hazardous items. It also involves inventorying the assets and sorting them by type and use. The inspection and estimation process is followed by devising selling strategies. Recently, mjunction offered valuation and estimation service to a power utility company to sell its 4x120 MW decommissioned thermal power plant by recognizing the value of the plant and assets.

Category: Disposal Assets

ET 17/03/2017

Whirlwind effect: How eco-friendly are windmills?

‘Turbines in Koppal, Chitradurga and Bagalkot have played havoc on habitats’ 

Spinning turbines atop rocky hills in Karnataka, which have become symbols of the State’s pitch for “greener sources” of electricity, may have come at a price to forests and its denizens.

A little over 6,870 acres of forest land has made way for wind farms and associated infrastructure, including transmission lines and roads in Karnataka, shows Forest Clearance data obtained from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoeF). The demand continues as the last two years has seen proposals – in various stages of approval – for further diversion of 1,612 acres of forest land for windmills.

Much of these are set up in the hill ranges of Kappatagudda, which is embroiled in a controversy regarding its conservation tag, in Gadag district and Jogimatti of Chitradurga district. And, it is here that the Karnataka Forest Department has commissioned a study, for the first time, to report on the year-long comprehensive study on the impact of wind turbines.

“There are reports of bird deaths and other effects on avian fauna abroad owing to the windmills. We wanted to specifically study the impact here, particularly considering that Chitradurga is saturated with windmills,” said Anur Reddy, Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (Forest Clearance).

The 18-month study, conducted by researchers from Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History in Coimbatore, is expected to be completed by year-end.

H.N. Kumara, senior scientist who is heading the study, said: “Windmills come up in wind funnels (where winds have high speeds), which are also used by migratory birds as a cruising path. Similarly, the noise and vibrations may affect larger mammals, leading to conflict. Even if no impact is found, the study will clear up doubts and give clarity.”

However, activists believe the effects of windmills are plain to see. Indrajit Ghorpade, who runs Deccan Conservation Foundation that focusses on conservation in scrub forests, says turbines in the hillocks of Koppal, Chitradurga and Bagalkot have played “havoc” on habitats of many species. “These mills have seen population of spotted deer, hyenas, chinkaras, blackbucks, and wolves decline owing to habitat loss. Now, we don’t see wolves close to windmills,” he said.


Wind power generating firms under the scanner

With forest fires keeping officials on their toes, a wary eye has been kept on transmission lines that criss-cross Kappatagudda hills.

Forest officials allege that one of the four cases of forest fire recorded in the past week is linked to sparks emitting from a transmission line in the the area. They have filed a case under Section 24 C(I) of the Karnataka Forest Act against a major wind power generating firms, while instructing firms to take safety precautions.

There are 240 windmills operating from the forest area in the Kappatagudda forest range, maintained by three different companies. Chief Conservator of Forests Krishna Udapudi said directions had been issued to the representatives of the three companies about building fire lines in their areas of operation. “We have also asked them to create a clean zone of 10-metre width on either side of the power transmission lines so that there is no burning material in the area that may cause the fire to spread,” he said.

Erecting barricades around the transformers, maintaining vigil over vehicles were some of the other directions issued.

Twirling trouble in forests

* Forest lands diverted since 1993 : 6,870.5 acres.

* Lands pending for approval : 1,612.4 acres.

* Total commissioned capacity (forest and non-forest land) : 3,241.44 MW.

Areas with commissioned Wind Projects

* Gadag (including Kappatagudda and surrounding areas) : 278 projects.

* Chitradurga (Jogimatti and surrounding areas) : 274.

* Davanagere : 69.

* Total in Karnataka : 893.


The Hindu 08/03/2017

SOLAR ENERGY - Now to Catch the Sun

The recent tenders for setting up and operating solar and wind power generation farms show that the price of renewable power is now approaching that from greenfield coal-based power plants in India. It will not take too long for solar photovoltaics to become the cheapest source of power.
But solar power is generated only during the day , that too intermittently. Similarly , wind power is generated during certain months and the power output also varies. If energy storage was inexpensive, one could have dealt with this intermittency by storing excess energy generated to be used when needed. Since grid-connected energy storage continues to be very expensive, generated power needs to be consumed instantly.
As the consumer demand for power also varies with time-of-day and season, there is a problem of matching demand to supply , both of which vary independently . One option would be to have excess capacity and get the non-renewable power generators, which are under our control, to back off when needed.However, this strategy has to be adopted judiciously , as it will increase the cost of non-renewable power.
Demand management, where the customer is incentivised to use more power when available and consume less when there is a shortage, will help and will, indeed, become necessary . Smart buildings and factories will take us towards implementation of demand management in time.
But what would really enable renewable power to become an unfettered dominant supplier is some kind of large scale storage. The electric vehicle (EV) is precisely such an application, where the cost of energy per km, including the cost of its storage, has to be only lower than the corresponding cost of a petroleum-based vehicle, to be economically viable.
EVs use distributed storage. Growth of renewable energy in India, thus, has an EV compulsion, as it requires EVs to grow in the country and provide the first large-scale storage that the growth in renewables needs. In energy terms, if all vehicles in India were electric today , they would use up 15-20% of India's electricity generated.
If their batteries are charged intelligently , EVs could help overcome the intermittent nature of renewable-power generation. But are EVs in themselves economically viable in India today?
The EV needs batteries to store energy needed for its operation. As battery prices fall steadily and the efficiency of motors grows to deliver higher mileage per unit of energy , there is a crossover point when EVs with sufficient range per battery charge become a more cost effective option than diesel, petrol or CNG based-vehicles. Left to itself, it may take three to five years for prices to fall enough in international markets for EVs configured for use abroad to emerge as a better alternative for consumers in India.
This, however, implies that India would be importing EV subsystems from the start, and it will be difficult to establish any kind of technology leadership. We may later see local manufacturing of at least some of the subsystems. Nevertheless, there is the real possibility that the value of imports of EVs and EV subsystems will match the oil import bill today and leave us no better off than today .
But there is another option towards large-scale EV adoption. The key elements of EV technology are available today at the right prices for several types of vehicles widely used in the Indian market. With an innovative, coordinated and market-oriented effort by industry and the government, certain EVs can be produced in India today .Adoption can be rolled out rapidly in a fully market-driven manner.
In these specific segments, India could attain a globally competitive leadership position in three to five years. This effort will simultaneously encourage local intellectual property (IP) generation and the manufacture of most EV subsystems or substantial parts of them.India can move towards substitution of oil imports with locally produced energy and EVs including subsystems.
Apart from these intrinsic benefits of early adoption of EVs, it forces the simultaneous growth of renewable energy production in India. This slew of reasons should drive us to single-mindedly pursue immediate efforts in a mission mode to enable early adoption of EVs in India.
A laissez-faire attitude will negatively impact the indigenous manufacturing of India's future automobiles and subsystems as well as India's import bill.It will also slow down the integration of renewable energy sources into the grid at scale.

The Economic Times 07/03/2017

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